Silla Jeokseongbi at Danyang (Stone Henge)

Heritage
Silla Jeokseongbi at Danyang Denomination National Treasure No. 198
Classification Stone monument
Piece 1 monument
Designated Date May. 22. 1979
Location Habangli, Danseong-mayeon,
Danyang-gun, North Chungcheong Province
Period King Jinheung, Silla Kingdom
The monument, which is located within Jeokseong fortress in Mt. Seongjae, was presumably erected between the 6th and 11th years of King Jinheung (A.D. 545-550) during the reign of the Silla Kingdom, which occupied Jeokseong, a territory of the Goguryeo Kingdom, and then constructed to soothe their popular sentiments. It was discovered in 1978, with the lower part hidden 30cm deep in the earth. The surface was found to be relatively well-preserved, with the letters inscribed legibly. The structure of a free shape, perhaps made of natural stone, is wide and thick in the upper part, but narrow and thin in the lower part. The top part was cut off, with the sides left intact. About 440 letters are assumed to have been inscribed, but now there are only 288 legible letters remaining in orderly rows and columns. They show dynamic features in the transition period of technique of calligraphy, and are referred to as research material.
The inscription reads that any person who contributed to the country’s territorial expansion and is loyal to his country should be awarded alike.
The historic relic enables us to gain new knowledge of legal and administrative systems and penalties applied during the reign of Silla, including the forced labor system, national laws on distribution of properties and legitimate generalization of local customs.
The symbolic heritage, which was established in a strategic point set for attacking northern regions, represents the national willingness to absorb Goguryeo residents who were inevitably forced to obey. The monument is considered highly valuable in that it was set up in honor of glorious territorial expansion, although it does not commemorate King Jinheung’s inspection tours.

Three storied stone pagoda at Hyangsalli

Heritage
Three storied stone pagoda at Hyangsalli Denomination National Treasure No. 405
Classification Stone Pagoda
Piece 1 Tower
Designated Date September. 3. 1964
Location Habangli, Gagok-myeon,
Danyang-gun, North Chungcheong Province
Period the Age of Unified Silla
The tower is situated about 11km northeast of Gosu Grand Bridge at Danyang-eup. In the past, fields surrounded the structure, but now rural houses have replaced it. It can probably be inferred that the stupa, around which pieces of porcelains and roofing tiles remain scattered, was set up within the precinct. However, any traces of a temple site cannot be seen. In 1935, the tower, in which sariras had been kept, was broken down when the relics were stolen and later rebuilt by the local community.
The tower comprises a three-storied tower body on a two-layered stylobate. The base is founded on several stones that are long and big, with pieces of a column shape inserted on each corner and in the middle of each layer. The parts of the tower body consist of body stones and roof stones, with pieces of a column shape placed on each corner of body stones. The top part has several ornaments in the shapes of an upside-down bowl, sprouted lotus flower and lotus bud.
Characteristically, the pagoda has a good shape in good proportion to parts, based on the style of constructing stone towers that were built up during the reign of the Unified Silla Kingdom. This beautiful stonework epitomizes one of proportionate models.

Ondalsanseong (castle)

Heritage
Ondalsanseong Denomination Historic site No. 264
Classification Fortress site (Citadel)
Area 26,354㎡
Designated Date July. 26. 1979
Location Ha-ri, Yeongchun-myeon,
Danyang-gun, North Chungcheong Province
Period the Silla Kingdom Era
Ondalsanseong, historic site No. 246, is a mountain fortress wall that was established around the South Han River. The semicircular stoned bastion, 972m long and 3m high, has been well preserved.
During the Three Kingdoms era, the bulwark was the field in which Goguryeo and Silla kingdoms engaged in intense battles, in order to dominate the south Han River. A famous love story between General Ondal, son-in-law of a Goguryreo King, and Princess Pyeonggang has been handed down through history. Relics were excavated inside the site, with much of the well left still undamaged, and a trapezoid shaped drain outlet remains outside of it. Also remarkable are the forms of gates in the south and the west, and the protruding part of the east gate, all of which can hardly be seen in any of Korea’s other old citadels. Northeast of the castle, there is a lime cave called Ondalgul below the precipice along the South Han River. The stoned wall, which remains well preserved, is considered one of the important relics for studying how to build up a citadel. A sightseeing resort, adjacent to Ondal Cave, has been opened in the vicinity of the castle.

Danyang Jeokseong (castle)

Heritage
Danyang Jeokseong Denomination Historic site No. 265
Classification Fortress site (Citadel)
Area 88,648㎡
Designated Date July. 26. 1979
Location Habangli, Danseong-myeon,
Danyang-gun, North Chungcheong Province
Period King Jinheung, Silla Kingdom
The fortress had been piled up with stones on Mt. Seongjae at Danyang county. The architecture had a circumference of about 900m, most of which was demolished. Some of it remains as citadel walls that were heaped up inside and outside in the northeast. There are parts of citadel walls, some of which were cut off, so it is possible to guess these might have been the respective gates in the southwest, south and southeast. The northern part best uses the geographical advantages of the south Han River and steep cliffs. A monument called Jeokseongbi(Stone Henge) was discovered within the bulwark in 1978, which hints at the change in power between the Silla and Goguryeo Kingdoms. In addition, pieces of earthenware and roofing tiles, which had been probably produced during the Three Kingdoms era, were discovered, together with relics of the Goryeo Dynasty. It appears that the citadel might have served as the center of governance. The structure was so firmly built that it is evaluated as one of the most important resources for studying how a citadel was constructed during the reign of the Silla Kingdom.

Prehistoric site at Suyanggae

Heritage
Prehistoric site at Suyanggae Denomination Historic site No. 398
Classification Prehistoric site
Area 110,842㎡
Designated Date Oct. 10. 1997
Location Aegok-ri, Jeokseong-myeon,
Danyang-gun, North Chungcheong Province
Period Prehistoric Age
This historic site had been developed between the late Old Stone Age and the early Iron Age, and is located in the alluvial area around the South Han River.
The site was probably a good place to live in, judging by the variety of stoneware that was found to be very characteristic and in the technique that was discovered. Particularly, in a sense of historical research, a stone blade and a stiletto with a handle that might have been used during the late Old Stone Age are comparable to those stone tools that were discovered in northern China, southern Siberia, and the Japanese islands, respectively. A site of a house was also discovered around the relics of the Old Stone Age, which is so uniquely structured that it is one of the most valuable resources for studying the livelihood of residents who dwelt around the area of Jungwon during the Iron Age. The historic site at Suyanggae is deemed to offer important evidence for exploring the cultural exchanges between Korea and the southeastern regions during the Prehistoric Age.

Thuja Orientalis at Yeongcheon-ri

Heritage
Thuja Orientalis at Yeongcheon-ri Denomination Natural Treasure No. 62
Classification Native habitat
Area 54,347㎡
Designated Date Dec. 2. 1962
Location Yeongcheon-ri, Maepo-eup,
Danyang-gun, North Chungcheong Province
In Korea, Thuja Orientalis grows mainly in the Danyang, Dalseong, Andong and Yeongyang areas and it also grows in China. Many of the trees grow deep-rooted in the crevices of the rocks on the cliffs, and yet are also planted around housing and villages owing to their beautiful appearance. Specifically, this variety of tree lines the national roads from Danyang to Jecheon, in the limestone areas which are at a height of about 100m above sea-level, The plants, about 1 to 2m high, are sparsely found away from each other, and yet unusually making a small colony with bridal wreaths which grow in the limestone areas, and are deemed to be a good example of the species that grow well in those areas. In Korea, there are only a few native habitats for thuja threes. They grow in small colonies distant from each other and are so highly-valued for researches on botanical colonies and group genetics, that they are designated as natural treasures and accordingly protected.

Yew tree colony at Mt, Sobaek

Heritage
Yew tree colony at Mt, Sobaek Denomination Natural treasure No. 244
Classification Native habitat
Area 329,310㎡
Designated Date Jun. 20. 1973
Location Eoigok-ri, Gagok-myeon,
Danyang-gun, North Chungcheong Province
Yew trees are relatively widely distributed in Korea, Japan, Manchuria, the Far East Asia and Russia. In Korea, the trees grow either in the higher mountainous areas, such as Mt Sobaek., Mt Taebaek, Mt. Odae, and Mt Seorak, or in the cold regions, and are so beautiful in appearance, that they are also cultivated in gardens. About 100 old trees, which have twisted branches and twigs, are sparsely scattered in the west of the Birobong Peak on Mt. Sobaek. Most of them are 7m high, and impressively, their branches, which are 2m high from the ground, stretch downward in all directions, perhaps affected by strong winds and heavy snows. These trees are often neighbored by cherry trees, hazel trees and Mongolian oak trees, and nearby the ridge can be seen a group of Megaleranthis saniculifolia Ohwi, which is one of the species indigenous to Korea. The yew tree colonies at Mt. Sobaek are very representative of Korean species of the same kind, and have such a high biological value that they are designated as natural treasures and accordingly protected.

Gosudonggul (Cave)

Heritage
Gosudonggul (Cave) Denomination Natural treasure No. 256
Classification Cave
Area 60,199㎡
Designated Date Sept. 1. 1976
Location Gosu-ri, Danyang-eup,
Danyang-gun, North Chungcheong Province
Period Paleozoic Era (about 570-240 million years ago)
The cave is located at Geumgokcheon Stream. It is 1,200m long in total and one section of which is open to the public for sightseeing is 600m long, while the other section is closed to public access for the sake of environmental conservation. Inside the cave is Lion Rock, which is considered to be a guardian of the cave, stalactites that look like waterfalls, a water pool called Seonneotang (fairy spring), 7m high icicle-like stalactites, stalagmites that rise from the earth, and stone pillars that are formed by the fusion of stalactites and stalagmites.
In addition, one can also see a natural–made bridge, strange rocks that are bent and flower- shaped, and coral and pearl colors that are unusually created in the cavern. The cave mainly consists of limestone generated from the lime stone layers piled up during the Paleozoic Era, and it has such a high archaeological value that it is designated as natural treasure and accordingly protected.

Ondaldonggul (Cave)

Heritage
Ondaldonggul (Cave) Denomination Natural treasure No. 261
Classification Cave
Area 349,485㎡
Designated Date Jun. 18. 1979
Location Ha-ri, Yeongchun-myeon,
Danyang-gun, North Chungcheong Province
Period Paleozoic Era
The cave, located under Ondal Citadel, is named after General Ondal who had the castle built during his reign. The cave, which is 700m long in total, mainly consists of light gray-colored lime stones and has myriad stalagmites, which are scattered here and there. The entrance, adjacent to the South Han River, gets submerged when the water level rises, so that no creatures can be seen there. Water flows from inside of the cave, some parts of which have been washed away, and so the cave is simply structured as it is.
The beautiful cave and its neighboring terrains, have such a high geological value that it is designated as natural treasure and are thus accordingly protected.

Nodongdonggul (Cave)

Heritage
Nodonggongul (Cave) Denomination Natural treasure No. 262
Classification Cave
Area 314,077㎡
Designated Date June. 18. 1979
Location Nodong-ri, Danyang-eup,
Danyang-gun, North Chungcheong Province
Period Paleozoic Era
The cave is situated around Nodongcheon Stream that flows into the northern part of Chungju Lake and is about 800m long in total. The cave mainly consists of limestone, with the inside steeply slanted, is full of so many secondary features such as stalactites with icicle shapes, stalagmites that rise from the earth, and stone pillars that are formed by the fusion of stalactites and stalagmites. Under the vertical wall in the middle of the cave, pieces of earthenware are scattered here and there, indicating that refugees might have sought shelter here during the Japanese invasion of Korea in 1592. The cave has such a variety of topological features and a high geological value, which is why it is designated as a natural treasure and accordingly protected.

Cho Ja-hyeong House (Old House)

Heritage
Cho Ja-hyeong House (Old House) Denomination Folklore asset No. 145
Classification House
Designated Date Jun. 10. 1984
Location Deokchon-ri, Gagok-myeon,
Danyang-gun, North Chungcheong Province
Period King Yeongjo, Joseon Dynasty
This traditional Korean house is located deep in a mountain skirted by the South Han River. The private architecture was perhaps set up in the middle 19th century, and has a structure of 'ㅁ' type with 'ㄱ' type main building and 'ㄴ' type servants’ quarters. There are Korean style verandahs in front of a main hall and behind the kitchen and living room, respectively, which can be generally seen in inland areas. Both kitchen and living room that are double partitioned are located in the southwest, and are horizontally connected to a two-partitioned main hall and a small room. An outhouse is adjacent to the kitchen and a fireplace is placed in front of the small room.
The servants’ quarters are originally of '一' type but recently appears to be changed into 'ㄱ' type as new buildings are added to it. There are a storehouse, a stable, a front gate, and two rooms for servants in the right side. The unique style house deserves to be highly valued in that it was differently constructed from others in the province.

Wuhwagyo-gisabi (Bridge buillt menorial ston henge)

Heritage
Wuhwagyo-gisabi (Bridge buillt menorial ston henge) Denomination North Chuncheong Province's Tangible Cultural Asset No. 80
Classification Stone Monument
No. of Items One Monument
Designated Date May. 1. 1981
Location habang-ri, Danseong-myeon,
Danyang-gun, North Chungcheong Province
The monument was set up in 1753, the 30th year (1753) of King Yeongjo, Joseon Dynasty after Danyang county chief Lee Gi-jung had built a stone bridge across Danyang Stream. The bridge was called Wuhwagyo but later collapsed due to flooding and now only the slender monument on the square base remains behind.
The epitaph, which was drawn up by a then well-known calligrapher, Nam Yong-wun, inscribes the names of workers, carpenters, masons, and plasterers who were involved in constructing the bridge.

Tagodae-amgakja (Carve Letters)

Heritage
Tagodae-amgakja (Carve Letters) Denomination North Chuncheong Province's Tangible Cultural Asset No. 81
Classification Stone structure
No. of Items One
Designated Date May. 1. 1981
Location habang-ri, Danseong-myeon,
Danyang-gun, North Chungcheong Province
The letters, ‘Tagodae’ are inscribed in a calligraphic style on natural rock. It is said that Toegye Lee Hwang, Danyang County chief during the period of King Myeongjong, Joseon Dynasty, would get so fatigued from his official work that he made frequent trips there to refresh himself by washing his hands and feet there. He named the rock Tagodae, which means a place where one can cleanse both mind and body, and inscribed his personal writing on it.

Bokdobyeoryeop-amgakja (Carve Letters)

Heritage
Bokdobyeoryeop-amgakja (Carve Letters) Denomination North Chuncheong Province's Tangible Cultural Asset No. 82
Classification Stone structure
No. of Items One
Designated Date May. 1. 1981
Location habang-ri, Danseong-myeon,
Danyang-gun, North Chungcheong Province
The letters, ‘Bokdobyeoryeop’ were inscribed on a natural rock by Toegye Lee Hwang who served as Danyang County chief during the reign of King Myeongjong, Joseon Dynasty. Bokdo Marsh is a reservoir which was made to irrigate the neighboring fields and the rice paddies. The water, surrounded by beautiful landscape, was so clean and clear that anyone who took a bath there could be purified in body and mind. In honor of this, Lee Hwang personally engraved his writing on the rock that means a spot at which one can restore one’s morale.

Yeongchun Hyanggyo (School Shrine)

Heritage
Yeongchun Hyanggyo (School Shrine) Denomination North Chuncheong Province's Tangible Cultural Asset No. 106
Classification Hyanggyo (local educational institution and shrine)
Designated Date Dec. 26. 1981
Location Sang-ri, Yeongchun-myeon,
Danyang-gun, North Chungcheong Province
Hyanggyo is one of local educational institutions and shrines that the country had built to hold memorial services for respectable Confucian scholars as well as to educate and enlighten the local common people. Yeongchun Hyanggyo was set up in 1399, the first year of King Jeongjong, Joseon Dynasty, and yet was burnt down in 1592, during the Japanese invasion Joseon dynesty. The institution and shrine were rebuilt at Namchon-ri in 1614, the 6th year of Crown Prince Gwanghaegun, Joseon Dynasty, and again destroyed by fire and then reconstructed at this site in 1791, the 15th year of King Jeongjo’s reign. Later, it was repaired several times. The present buildings left behind are Daeseongjeon (great Confucian shrine), Myeongryundang (auditorium), Dongjae and Seojae (classrooms in the east and in the west) and Gyojiksa (teachers’ room). Daeseongjeon is where Confucius and other saints’ tablets are kept together and where memorial services for them are also held. Myeongryundang is a lecture hall where students gather to study. Specifically, Myeongryundang is arranged in the front right side of Daeseongjeon, differently from other Hyanggyos in which the former and the latter are vertically lined up. During the Joseon Dynasty, the school and shrine had been gratis granted lands, servants, and books by the country, and yet lost its educational purpose since the Reformation of Kabo in 1894, and now memorial services are just being held there twice annually in the spring and in the autumn.

Danyang Hyanggyo (School Shrine)

Heritage
Danyang Hyanggyo (School Shrine) Denomination North Chuncheong Province's Tangible Cultural Asset No. 107
Classification Hyanggyo (local educational institution and shrine)
Designated Date Dec. 26. 1981
Location Sangbang-ri, Danseong-myeon,
Danyang-gun, North Chungcheong Province
Hyanggyo is one of the local educational institutions and shrines that the country had built to hold memorial services for respectable Confucian scholars as well as to educate and enlighten the local common populace. Danyang Hyanggyo was set up in 1415, the 15th year of King Taejo, and was transferred here during Togye Lee Hwang’s county chief service in the reign of King Myeongjong (1545-1567). The architecture had twice been remodeled during the reign of King Yeongjo (1724-1776) and later had been repaired several times. The remaining present buildings are Daeseongjeon (great Confucian shrine), Myeongryundang (auditorium), Dongjae (classroom in the east) and attached building. The structure was arranged in conformity with the traditional custom by which a schoolhouse should be located in front of a grave of Confucian scholars. During Joseon Dynasty, the institution and shrine had been freely granted lands, servants, and books by the country, and yet lost its educational purpose since the Reformation of Kabo in 1894, and now memorial services are just being held there twice annually in the spring and in the autumn.

Cheondongdonggul (Cave)

Heritage
Cheondongdonggul (Cave) Denomination North Chuncheong Province's Memorial No. 19
Classification Cave
Designated Date Dec. 6. 1977
Location Cheondong-ri, Danyang-eup,
Danyang-gun, North Chungcheong Province
Cheondongdonggul Cave, 200m long in total, is mainly made up of dark gray-colored limestone, and had been probably formed about 450 million years ago. The entrance is so narrow that visitors need to creep into the cave’s interior, which is filled with icicle-shaped stalactites, stalagmites rising up from the ground, and stone pillars that are formed by the fusion of stalactites and stalagmites. There is one hole deep into the earth, which has also plenty of stone pillars. Grape-shaped formations can be seen are positioned inside of three springs which contain clear ground water. A limestone rock called ‘Flower Tray’ is a rare formation that can hardly be found anywhere else in the world. Even more eye-catching are stone icicles that hang from the ceilings of the cave, ripples that stretch wide and far over stones, and the very exquisite and fine stalactites.

Geumgul Paleolithic Relice

Heritage
Geumgul Paleolithic Relice Denomination North Chuncheong Province's Memorial No. 102
Classification Remains
Area 4,348㎡
Designated Date Dec. 30. 1994
Location Dodam-ri, Danyang-eup,
Danyang-gun, North Chungcheong Province
This is the oldest Paleolithic historic site that can be seen in Korea. All of the relics discovered are so widely originated from between the early Old Stone Age and the Bronze Age, that the respective characteristics of the ages can be inferred. In order to construct Chungju Dam in 1980, a geographical survey on cultural heritage was conducted around submerged areas and it was discovered that the Geumgul site belonged to the relics of the Old Stone Age origin. Later, as a result of three investigations into excavations, a variety of cultures were found to have existed there from the Paleolithic Age to the Bronze Age, and most of the relics excavated were of Old Stone Age origin. The cave is 8m high and 7 to 10m wide, with the part discovered as 85m long, and is very significant in that the site shows simultaneously many vestiges of cultures which had developed throughout the prehistoric age that can be rarely seen in other historic sites.

Gunanggul Paleolithic Relice

Heritage
Gunanggul Paleolithic Relice Denomination North Chuncheong Province's Memorial No. 103
Classification Remains
Area 5,600㎡
Designated Date Dec. 30. 1994
Location Yeocheon-ri, Gagok-myeon,
Danyang-gun, North Chungcheong Province
Gunanggul cave is one of the Old Stone Age’s caves which remains conserved almost completely intact, both inside and outside, and which can be very rarely seen in Korea. Excavation surveys were carried out on three occasions since 1986 and it was discovered that the historic site belonged to the relics of Paleolithic origin that consisted of eight layers in total. Particularly, the third layer was found to contain so many relics and animal fossils whereby it could be assumed to have been a center of culture and living at that time. The entrance of the cave directs southeastward and is 5.5m wide and 140m long in total. Here were discovered foot, ankle, and toe parts of male adults’ bones, along with the fossils of short-tailed monkeys, deer, bears, and tigers and the stone tools that were used for scratching and scrubbing. Some of the fossils of animal bones were found to have such artificial traces as pushing and cutting that they could indicate evidences of how animals were killed and cut at that time.

Gakgi-ri lpseok (Menhir)

Heritage
Gakgi-ri lpseok (Menhir) Denomination North Chuncheong Province's Memorial No. 127
Classification Dolmen (Immovable property)
Designated Date Oct. 25. 2002
Location Gakgi-ri, Jeokceong-myeon
Danyang-gun, North Chungcheong Province
Period Prehistoric
Ipseok is also called menhir, whereby we can identify how people lived during the Bronze Age, along with dolmen. Usually, one or several big stone columns were put in the ground, representing either the boundaries between tribes or the monumental symbols of belief.
At the entrance of Gakgi-ri town, two menhirs of different shapes are located. The town was named after two rocks that stand like horns at its entrance.
The No. 1 menhir is triangular and is called ‘male rock,’ whereas the No. 2 menhir is small and round and is called ‘female rock.’ The two standing stones are found to have many hollows(holes) on their surface that appear to be chiseled and ground. The holes are 2.0 to 12 ㎝ wide in diameter. Especially, an oval altar is placed around the first one, so that it is assumed to be related to some rites held there. Gakgi-ri menhir features that gender was conspicuously expressed in the respective different forms of rocks, and shows one typical example of standing stones with large or small hollows, and remains conserved in such a good condition that it is considered one of important resources for studying a megalithic culture.

Jungnyeong Sansindang (shrine)

Heritage
Jungnyeong Sansindang (shrine) Denomination North Chuncheong Province's Folklore Asset No. 3
Title Jungnyeong Sansindang
Classification Religious asset
No. of items 1 building
Designated Date Dec. 21. 1976
Location Yongbuwon-ri, Daegang-myeon
Danyang-gun, North Chungcheong Province
A mountain god’s shrine was a place in which the residents worshiped Sanshin (called the Mountain God) which is one of the ancient gods in Korea, in their hopes of protecting both their village and temple. Jungnyeong Sansindang is located halfway up a mountain at Yongbuwon-ri and inside it, there is a tablet under which people pay tribute.
The villagers called the mountain god “Dajagu grandmother” and also the shrine ‘the house of Dajagu grandmother.’ Related to this, an old legend has been handed down.
In old times, the area was frequently haunted by a gang of bandits who would plunder the town and attack the people; and to make matters worse, the steep geographical features made it very difficult for the local troops to capture the thieves. At this time, one grandmother had a good idea and proposed the county band to collude with the local residents, in order to subdue them. Everyone was glad to hear of her clever idea. They were all informed in advance of the pre-arranged plan devised by the grandmother: When she sneaked into a den of robbers and called “Dajaguya (all slept),” it would be a sign that they should all fall asleep. When she called “Deoljaguya” (all awake), it meant that they should show that they were all awake.
During a party for the leader’s birthday, they became intoxicated and then fell down asleep. At the sight of this, she immediately shouted “Dajaguya’ and the group were able to deal with all of the plunderers. Later, in honor of her merits, a shrine was set up by the county and memorial services were held there in the spring and in the autumn, respectively. A shrine called Jungneongsa Temple was constructed during the Joseon Dynasty, to which tribute services were paid countywide but presently prayers are being given on a smaller scale for the blessing and wellbeing of a town in March and September annually. The year when the shrine was set up was not clear, but the lot was rebuilt, aided by the donations of the community.
The shrine was worshiped on a smaller scale, and yet the belief in the shrine is still deep-rooted in the hearts of the local community.